Yours Very Truly, George Eastman’s Legacy in Letters

Posted by on May 14 2014 | History

One of the neatest facets of the George Eastman Legacy Collection is the personal and business correspondence of George Eastman. Our vault contains 154 boxes of loose, incoming letters and 40 bound volumes containing Eastman’s outgoing letters in Letterpress format.

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Over the years, hundreds of researchers have come to peruse Eastman’s letters as they researched his business sense, love for music, home and gardens, philanthropy, travels, and much more. In order to preserve the fragile Letterpress volumes and aid people in their research, two years ago we embarked upon an ambitious project: scanning the copies of George Eastman’s outgoing letters in high resolution so that they could eventually be OCR’d and thus be word searchable.

With the help of Kirtas Technologies and Iris Resources, the 40 bound volumes were carefully photographed. It was a tedious process as clean, white sheets of paper had to be put behind each thin, translucent page so the blue text could be legible. Once we had our hi-res images (each volume contained either 500 or 1,000 pages), an indispensable volunteer of ours, Peter Thomas, ran the images through Photoshop, getting rid of unneeded space and heightening the contrast so the text could be as easy to read as possible. Then he ran the images through Abbyy, an Optical Character Recognition (OCR) software that “reads” the text and generates word-searchable PDFs.

While Peter spent months doing his part in Photoshop and Abbyy, some volunteers and I spent the same period typing up the handwritten indexes in the back of each volume that Eastman’s secretary, Alice K. Whitney, had created after wrapping up Eastman’s affairs. Now we have a complete, chronological index of every letter that Eastman wrote through his secretaries. (If Eastman personally handwrote a letter to someone, we wouldn’t have a copy – unless it’s been donated to us).

Now when a researcher asks if Eastman wrote to a particular person or company, I can quickly look their name up in our spreadsheet and see if and when Eastman corresponded with them. Getting the appropriate image number from that spreadsheet allows me to pull up the appropriate PDF(s) in seconds, saving time and preserving the original volumes.

Spreadsheet Example

 

Because of the nature of the often-blurry text on the thin paper, the OCR is not perfect. But we’re convinced we did the best we could with current technology available to us. At its best though, we can search the PDFs for particular words like Labrador or Brownie and find when Eastman talks about particular subjects.

We intend to make these searchable letters available online in a yet-to-be-determined format. Stay tuned.

Original Letter

Original Letter

 

Plain text version that was "read" and captured by Abbyy.

Plain text version that was “read” and captured by Abbyy.

 

 

 

 

Jesse Peers is the archivist of the George Eastman Legacy Collection.

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Dryden Trivia – Garlic Is as Good as Ten Mothers

Posted by on May 06 2014 | contest, Motion Pictures

Tonight, the Dryden Theatre screens two of Les Blank’s most loving odes to culinary creativity, Werner Herzog Eats His Shoe and Garlic Is as Good as Ten Mothers. These two lighthearted yet meticulously composed masterpieces are as endearing as they are interesting.

Garlic Is as Good as Ten Mothers (Les Blank, US 1980, 51 min., 16mm)

In recognition of the screening, our friends (and fellow Les Blank fans) at the Red Fern restaurant will be featuring delicious garlic-themed dishes beginning on Tuesday, May 6 and running them through Sunday, May 11.
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In addition, the Red Fern has generously provided a $30 gift certificate to a lucky Dryden Theatre fan who can answer the following garlic Trivia questions by tomorrow (Wednesday, May 7) at 5 p.m.

 

TRIVIA
Leave your answers in the comments below and we’ll choose a random winner from those with the correct answers. Good luck and don’t foreget to check out the rest of the Les Blank films screening throughout May at the Dryden.

1) When Satan left the Garden of Eden, which foot did garlic appear under?

2) Which ancient culture invoked garlic and onion as deities?

3) Nicholas Culpeper, the English herbalist and botanist, linked garlic with which planet?

4) Bonus question: Why are Vampires scared of garlic?

 

Kolbe Resnick is the Theater Manager of the Dryden Theatre.

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Another America: My Experience on an Amish Farm in Lancaster County

Posted by on Apr 28 2014 | Guest Blog, Other, Photography

Fifteen years ago, I was in my mid 30s and I didn’t know anything about farming. I bought a farm in Chenango County near Binghamton, N.Y. and bought two of everything—goats, sheep, cows, chickens, and pigs. People called me Noah.

Robert Weingarten (American, b. 1941). Amish 25, Lancaster County, PA, 2001. Inkjet print. Courtesy of the artist. © Robert Weingarten

Robert Weingarten (American, b. 1941). Amish 25, Lancaster County, PA, 2001. Inkjet print. Courtesy of the artist. © Robert Weingarten

I really liked the egg-laying hens. They’re really easy to work with. They make magic every day. They lay an egg every single day, nature’s perfect protein source.

I decided I wanted to learn how to raise organic eggs, so I called up Organic Valley and asked who’s raising eggs in the Northeast. They gave me the name of an Amish farmer in Lancaster County, who was at the time the largest producer of organic eggs for Organic Valley.

Robert Weingarten (American, b. 1941). Amish 52, Holmes County, OH, 2002. Inkjet print. Courtesy of the artist. © Robert Weingarten

Robert Weingarten (American, b. 1941). Amish 52, Holmes County, OH, 2002. Inkjet print. Courtesy of the artist. © Robert Weingarten

I just kind of broke that third wall, walked onto his farm, shook his hand, and said, “Hey, I want to raise organic eggs and I’ve heard you’re the best guy in the Northeast.” We immediately hit it off.

Jacob Glick lives in Bird In Hand, P.A. He and his family had five hen houses each with 10,000 chickens. All of the hens had access to the outdoors, and were let outside during the day to run around the pasture. It’s instinctual for them to come back into the barn at night and roost.

The most interesting and intriguing thing about the Amish lifestyle is how they’ve figured out ways to work around not having the modern conveniences we all think about, like electricity.

Chickens need a certain number of hours of light each day. So they had gas lanterns in the barn and used an old-fashioned windup alarm clock, with a string tied to the bells that when pulled would shut off the lights.

Robert Weingarten (American, b. 1941). Amish 10, Lancaster County, PA, 2001. Inkjet print. Courtesy of the artist. © Robert Weingarten

Robert Weingarten (American, b. 1941). Amish 10, Lancaster County, PA, 2001. Inkjet print. Courtesy of the artist. © Robert Weingarten

The Amish live a very simple life, very hard life. They’re not remotely afraid to put in a fifteen or sixteen hour hard day of physical labor, six days a week. Sunday is a day off, devoted to Church.

Robert Weingarten (American, b. 1941). Amish 35, Holmes County, OH, 2002. Inkjet print. Courtesy of the artist. © Robert Weingarten

Robert Weingarten (American, b. 1941). Amish 35, Holmes County, OH, 2002. Inkjet print. Courtesy of the artist. © Robert Weingarten

For a six-month period, I would go down and stay on Jacob’s farm for five or six days at a time. It was about 300 miles from my farm in Chenango County. He trusted me and I trusted him. Jacob was so giving and so helpful to me to really understand all the things I needed to do.

Some of my best memories are of the meals. Everything is made from scratch. That shoofly pie … wow! Lunch is the biggest meal of the day and also the only time the Amish do business.

The Amish are close to the vest when it comes to almost everything. For them to open up to me was very unusual.
The Amish are very helpful to each other. When someone gets married, they’ll buy a farm, and the whole community shows up to build a barn for them. It’s incredible how much gets done as a community. They’re a very, very tight knit community.

For a couple of years, Jacob hired a driver in a big truck (yes, there is an exception when hiring a driver) and he and his boys came up to my farm and stayed for well over a week and we went out hunting deer.

Robert Weingarten (American, b. 1941). Amish 72, Lancaster County, PA, 2003. Inkjet print. Courtesy of the artist. © Robert Weingarten

Robert Weingarten (American, b. 1941). Amish 72, Lancaster County, PA, 2003. Inkjet print. Courtesy of the artist. © Robert Weingarten

There’s an innocence about them that’s lost in our society now.

Related Exhibition and Program:

Another America: A Testimonial to the Amish by Robert Weingarten is on view through May 25, 2014 in Brackett Clark Gallery.

In Person: Photographer Robert Weingarten (Free to Members)
Thursday, May 1, 2014 at 6:00 p.m. in the Dryden Theatre.
Robert Weingarten will discuss his work on view in Another America.
 

 

 

Dean Sparks is the General Manager of Hart's Local Grocers, a new independent grocery store opening soon in the East End in downtown Rochester.

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Happy Birthday, Mary Pickford

Posted by on Apr 08 2014 | History, Motion Pictures

In honor of Mary Pickford’s birthday today, we look beyond her famous golden curls at her close association with George Eastman House and her early film preservation efforts.

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On November 9, 1949, Mary Pickford was on hand to cut the ribbon at the ceremony for the opening of George Eastman House as a museum for photography and film. She was the sole celebrity representing motion pictures at the opening, but was joined by other noteworthy guests such as photographer Edward Steichen and poet Carl Sandberg.

Eastman House director Oscar Solbert, Mary Pickford, and Kodak president Thomas J. Hargrave

Eastman House director Oscar Solbert, Mary Pickford, and Kodak president Thomas J. Hargrave

In November 1955, George Eastman House held the first Festival of Film Artists (later called the George Awards). Conceived by the museum’s first director Oscar Solbert and organized by James Card, the first curator of motion pictures, the awards honored twenty living film artists of the silent era — five in each category of actor, actress, director, and cinematographer — “for distinguished artistic contribution to the universal medium of motion pictures” for the period 1915 to 1925. Ballots were sent out to people in the industry from that era, asking them to select their top five choices of film artists in each category. Pickford received the most votes by far of all the actresses on the ballot — 383 votes, the next highest being Lillian Gish with 236 votes.

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Someone at the museum had the forethought (or curiosity) to note the name of the person who returned each ballot, so we can actually see how some of these luminaries voted. It’s good to see that Pickford had the class not to vote for herself. (There were many others on the ballot who did vote for themselves!)

Lillian Gish, Oscar Solbert, and Mary Pickford

Lillian Gish, Oscar Solbert, and Mary Pickford

Pickford flanked by emcee Jesse L. Lasky (far left) and two of her directors and fellow 1955 George Award winners: Frank Borzage (left) and Marshall Neilan (right)

Pickford flanked by emcee Jesse L. Lasky (far left) and two of her directors and fellow 1955 George Award winners: Frank Borzage (left) and Marshall Neilan (right)

The awards were repeated two years later in October 1957, this time honoring film artists for the period 1926-1930. Pickford was a second-time winner and returned to Rochester for the awards ceremony, which was again held at the Eastman Theatre.

Pickford and husband Charles “Buddy” Rogers are greeted at the Rochester airport by Oscar Solbert and James Card

Pickford and husband Charles “Buddy” Rogers are greeted at the Rochester airport by Oscar Solbert and James Card

Pickford with fellow 1957 award winners Harold Lloyd, Janet Gaynor, and Lillian Gish

Pickford with fellow 1957 award winners Harold Lloyd, Janet Gaynor, and Lillian Gish

Pickford receiving her award from emcee Rouben Mamoulian at the Eastman Theatre

Pickford receiving her award from emcee Rouben Mamoulian at the Eastman Theatre

As a result of the connections made during the first and second Festivals of Film Artists, George Pratt, assistant curator of motion pictures, embarked on an oral history project in 1958 whereby he interviewed 27 pioneers of the silent film era, including many of the winners of the George Awards. Mary Pickford was one of them and the interview was conducted at Pickfair, her legendary home in Beverly Hills.

During the interview, Pickford recounts her early days on stage with David Belasco and on film with the Biograph Company, her less than favorable experiences with director Ernst Lubitsch (whom she brought to the U.S. from Germany to direct her in Rosita), acting with alligators in Sparrows, and cutting off her hair in 1928 (at the age of 36):

I wanted to be free of the shackles of curls and playing little girls. And I thought that was one step toward it. Of course I had the most indignant letters, insulting letters. And I thought, if that’s all, after all these years, a lifetime in the theatre and motion pictures, if it’s a bunch of eighteen curls that’s keeping me on screen, it’s about time I retired.

Perhaps one of the nicest moments, caught on tape during the testing of the tape recorder, is Pickford telling Pratt that she thought “Mama, Lottie, and Jack ought to be with us” during the interview as well, referring to a photograph she had with her of her mother, sister, and brother, all long ago deceased.

In 1959, James Card wrote an article for Eastman House’s Image magazine, assessing Pickford’s career. He felt compelled to counter the prevailing remembrance of Pickford’s performances as “the epitome of saccharine banality, sweetness and light and all permeated with the philosophy of Pollyanna,” due in large part, he believed, to the unavailability of her films at that time for screenings at film societies and festivals. He firmly defended her as:

. . . a battling hellcat, morally and physically committed to all-out attack against the forces of evil, bigotry or malicious snobbery that sought to frustrate the proper denouement of a triumphant, lovely girl appropriately presented in stunning close-up, her incomparable curls backlighted and the Botticelli smile shimmering through the last glittering remnants of any left-over teardrops.

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Pickford struggled with the idea of preserving her legacy on film. In 1931, and with what turned out to be only one more role on screen in her future, she told an interviewer for Photoplay magazine, “[W]hen I go, my films go with me. They are to be destroyed. I am buying all my old films for this purpose. I would rather be a beautiful illusion in the minds of people than a horrible example on celluloid. I pleased my own generation. That is all that matters.” Fearing that she and her films would be misjudged according to modern tastes — sound films had recently supplanted silent films as the industry standard — she reacted in this extreme manner. Fortunately, she had a change of heart and by the mid-1940’s was negotiating with the Library of Congress for the donation of her nitrate films for preservation. Much bureaucratic wrangling with funding and reorganization within the institution, however, made the preservation copying of her films from nitrate to safety film stock a decades-long endeavor.

George Eastman House played a significant role in the preservation of some of Pickford’s films during this muddled period. In 1951, Pickford allowed Eastman House to assist in the stalled copying of her films at the Library of Congress, and in five years eight of her feature films were copied by Eastman House onto acetate film. To further speed up the process, Pickford donated funds to Eastman House for the preservation of 26 additional feature films and 25 Biograph shorts. Card concludes his article by assuring us that:

Mary Pickford’s pictures are shown repeatedly to the public in the Dryden Theatre of Eastman House. In these continuing encounters, Mary’s art stays wonderfully alive . . . . For Mary still charms and always will. The poet [Vachel Lindsay], too, was right – there is something heavenly about Mary Pickford. It is a quality, we must admit, most uncommon in motion pictures.

And so today, we celebrate Mary Pickford’s legacy in motion pictures, and her foresight in preserving her films for future generations to study and enjoy.

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All images are from the George Eastman House Collection, Moving Image Department.

Nancy Kauffman is the Archivist for the Stills, Posters and Paper Collections in the Moving Image Department.

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A Magic Carpet Ride with Douglas Fairbanks

Posted by on Mar 29 2014 | History, Motion Pictures

90 years ago this month, Douglas Fairbanks released his fantasy spectacle The Thief of Bagdad. This was Fairbanks’ biggest and most prestigious film produced to date and was one of the most expensive films of the 1920s with a budget of over $1,000,000. Fairbanks wrote, produced, and starred in the film, and was able to bring his artistic vision to the screen with the exceptional assistance of director Raoul Walsh, production designer William Cameron Menzies, and cinematographer Arthur Edeson. The special effects and immense sets were the film’s biggest selling points – in addition to the star power of Fairbanks in the lead, of course.

The Stills, Posters and Paper Collection in the Moving Image Department has many wonderful artifacts for this film that have safely survived the 90 years since the film’s release. This souvenir program was sold at theatres during The Thief of Bagdad‘s exclusive roadshow engagements in larger cities such as New York, Los Angeles and Chicago. Inside is the cast and personnel list, a retelling of the film in story form, quotes from the critics, and information about the art design, all beautifully illustrated with scenes from the film. Note the cover price of 25¢ (roughly equivalent to $3.50 today).

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For those who didn’t want to spend 25¢ for the souvenir program, there was also a free program available to pick up inside the lobby of the theatre. This one is from the Liberty Theatre in New York City, where the film premiered on March 18, 1924, and includes the basic information about the film — cast, production personnel, and a brief synopsis of the story — less elaborately presented than in the souvenir program.

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A common form of advertising movies during the 1920s was the movie herald. These small flyers were handed out at local theatres to advertise films coming soon to that theatre. They were, in effect, heralding the coming attractions. This tri-fold herald for The Thief of Bagdad was handed out at the Lyceum Theatre in Rochester, NY. It manages to pack in a synopsis, praise from the critics, and blurbs about the fantastic sequences in the film, all amidst a striking graphic display of images.

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A music cue sheet for The Thief of Bagdad was provided to theatres to help their accompanists prepare the music to play with the film, whether a lone accompanist on piano or organ, or a multiple piece ensemble or orchestra. It gives suggestions for music pieces to be played for each scene in the film, cued to either an intertitle or an action that the accompanist would see on screen.

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The Douglas Fairbanks Nitrate Still Negatives Collection at George Eastman House is a treasure chest full of images from The Thief of Bagdad, which boasts the largest number of still negatives for any of Fairbanks’ films in this collection – over 1,700. In addition to the typical stills shot of scenes in the film, there are amazing behind-the-scenes and production shots that show the cast and crew at work, construction of sets, and costume and makeup tests.

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Douglas Fairbanks on set with director Raoul Walsh:
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These rare stills show Fairbanks posing before the camera to test how effectively the makeup work depicted scars his character suffered after receiving a flogging when he is discovered to be a thief:

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Most fascinating of all these are the production stills showing how some of the magic of the film was created, such as the construction of the fanciful sets, the underwater sequence, and the flying magic carpet.

The staircase in the Princess’s bedroom, during construction and once completed:
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The underwater sequence, where Fairbanks is tempted by the beckoning sirens:

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And the spectacular magic carpet ride:

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Finally, discoveries in internal correspondence and in one of the Technicolor collections at George Eastman House raise the question of whether Fairbanks was considering filming The Thief of Bagdad in what was then Technicolor’s two-color process. After completing Robin Hood in 1922, Fairbanks began planning his next film, which he wanted to be a pirate story. He felt that a pirate story would best be filmed in color as he “could not imagine piracy without color.” However, he was not at all satisfied with the technical aspects and limitations of filming in color. At about the same time that he was exploring his pirate film, he received as a gift a book of tales of the Arabian Nights, and he then shifted his attention to The Thief of Bagdad.

Although he had put off the pirate film for the time being, color was no doubt on Fairbanks’ mind in 1923 and 1924 while The Thief of Bagdad was in production. Anna May Wong, who played the Princess’s duplicitous slave in the film, talked about working on the film in a 1957 letter to George Pratt, assistant curator of motion pictures at George Eastman House. Wong stated that starring in The Toll of the Sea, the first full length Technicolor film (produced in 1922), established her in the public’s mind and also attracted producers’ attentions to her dramatic efforts. One of the producers was Douglas Fairbanks, “who at that time was very interested and studying different color processes with the intention of making his forthcoming film in color.” Fairbanks signed Wong to a contract, but “decided at the eleventh hour to continue using black and white film for making The Thief of Bagdad.”

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It’s not too far of a leap to venture that Fairbanks was likely testing the waters with Technicolor to see what they could do for him and his desire to produce a film in color. A test frame in Technicolor’s research files for its two-color process shows actress Etta Lee posing in an exotic costume much like those seen in The Thief of Bagdad:

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Lee was in the cast of The Thief of Bagdad, playing the Slave Girl of the Sand Board. Although none of Lee’s costumes in the film is the one seen here in the test frame, the top of a musical instrument can be seen in the background. Compare this with a still from the film, showing the Slave of the Lute, played by Winter Blossom:

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Whether Fairbanks was considering filming The Thief of Bagdad in Technicolor, or if he just made use of his current production to have color tests made for his anticipated pirate film, is mere speculation. Perhaps Technicolor, knowing of Fairbanks’ interest in making a film in color — as well as his dissatisfaction with the limitations of the color process — was trying to court him and keep him interested. After all, a Fairbanks feature film in Technicolor would undoubtedly have been a major achievement for the company in advancing its color process. Perhaps Technicolor initiated and offered further testing at Fairbanks’ studio, using actors, costumes, and props that may have been on hand for his current production. Whatever the case, these artifacts certainly give valuable clues to further study of the film, Fairbanks, and the technical achievements of the time.

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All images are from the George Eastman House Collection, Moving Image Department.

 

Nancy Kauffman is the Archivist for the Stills, Posters and Paper Collections in the Moving Image Department.

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