Archive for the 'Photography' Category

What Does Identity Mean?

Posted by on Aug 27 2014 | Behind The Scenes, Exhibitions, Exploring the Archive, History, Other, Photography

“What’s in a name? That which we call a rose — by any other name would smell as sweet.” Shakespeare wrote these lines for Juliet to speak in the play “Romeo and Juliet” and the question they pose is sometimes relevant to the cataloguing of a photograph.

Images such as “Migrant Mother,” “Powerhouse Mechanic,” and “Afghan Refugee Girl” are familiar to us by these acquired names, sometimes merely descriptive, sometimes alliterative and even poetic ones.

Dorothea Lange (American, 1895 - 1965). Migrant Mother, Nipomo, California, 1936, printed ca. 1973. Gelatin silver print. George Eastman House. Gift of Robert J. Doherty.

Dorothea Lange (American, 1895 – 1965). Migrant Mother, Nipomo, California, 1936, printed ca. 1973. Gelatin silver print. George Eastman House. Gift of Robert J. Doherty.

But it is also human nature to want to look behind the curtain, to know the narrative behind the iconic image, “just the facts, Ma’am” (as Sgt. Friday on the TV show Dragnet would say), the who, what, when and where of that image.

In the past year or so, new information about the identity of a solemn, bearded man in a brimmed hat in a Lewis Hine photograph has brought both clarity and resolution as well as prompting some consideration about the significance of a title and of inscriptions and the overall meaning and impact of certain historical photographs.

The portrait, now titled by Eastman House “A Yemenite Jew from Palestine” and dated 1926 in the exhibition Lewis Hine-from the Collections of George Eastman House, International Museum of Photography and Film was the springboard of these discussions. The image is a powerful one and like the familiar saying it “speaks a thousand words.”

Lewis W. Hine (American, 1874 - 1940), A Yemenite Jew from Palestine, 1926. Gelatin silver print. George Eastman House. Transfer from Photo League Lewis Hine Memorial Committee; ex-collection of Corydon Hine.

Lewis W. Hine (American, 1874 – 1940), A Yemenite Jew from Palestine, 1926. Gelatin silver print. George Eastman House. Transfer from Photo League Lewis Hine Memorial Committee; ex-collection of Corydon Hine.

In the case of this man’s portrait however, this road led to conflicting pieces of information for the cataloguer, creating, for a time, more confusion than clarity.

In 1901, Hine was one of several mid-westerners that progressive educator Frank Manny brought with him when he took over the position as supervisor of the Ethical Culture School in New York City. Hine began to photograph at Ellis Island in 1905 and wanted his pupils “[to] have the same regard for contemporary immigrants as they have for the Pilgrim who landed at Plymouth.”

As former Eastman House curator Alison Nordstrom tells us, “he was not on assignment in those years and he did not expect to make a living at it. His photographs were not “mug shots,” he strove to enoble-and not to accuse. He established a connection with his subjects and wanted the resulting images to tell their stories.”

We also know that in response to the new US government imposition of immigrant quotas, he returned to Ellis Island to make the same kind of portraits of new-arrivals in 1926.

The Eastman House’s Lewis Hine archive contains over 7000 photographs and 4000 negatives, along with manuscript and other materials and is generally acknowledged to be the most comprehensive collection of his work in the world. However, one should not be surprised that his work is widely represented in other museum collections and at historical sites, including the New York Public Library, the National Archives, the Library of Congress, the University of Maryland and other places. Photography is, after all, a reproductive and a disseminating medium, and one negative can yield up many prints. What gives significance and value to most photographs is not that it is the only one, but that it is a vintage one, made by the photographer himself or under his close supervision, around the time the negative was exposed. And, not incidentally, a good print in fine condition will be valued over a poor one.

There are 2 small negatives of the bearded man at Ellis Island in the Eastman House Collection, each taken from a slightly different angle, probably moments apart. There are also 2 vintage photographs that correspond to each of these negatives.

This particular image is generally known through past exhibitions and their catalogues by the title “Armenian Jew, Ellis Island” and is sometimes dated 1905 and sometimes as 1926. An enlarged image in the second floor Great Hall at the Ellis Island National Monument bears the evocative caption, “Armenian Jew, Ellis Island” 1926, followed by: “This Armenian Jew probably left his native land to escape the Turkish persecution of the post-war period.”

Eastman House cataloguers were contacted in April 2010 by a visitor to Ellis Island, a man with an interest in Turkish history, who questioned this caption information on multiple fronts and argued dispassionately and persuasively that all of these facts could not be right at the same instance: nationality, religious affiliation, date, and historical events in the sequence and timing of last years of the Ottoman Empire.

The information written on the 4 portraits of this man by Hine in the Eastman House did little to resolve the issue and his concerns, since the information Hine had written on the prints was indeed “Armenian Jew Emigrant at Ellis Island 1926” but in contrast, he had written on the envelopes containing the negatives “Syrian Jewish Immigrant, Photograph by Lewis W. Hine, Ellis Island, 1905” With 2 nationalities and 2 dates, one is left with 4 distinct possibilities for the title. We knew from experience with Hine’s conflicting notations on the material at Eastman House that this was not unusual: The same portrait of an elderly woman could be identified as “Slovakian Grandmother”, “Jewish Grandmother” or “Polish Grandmother for instance and all could be variously dated from his two forays into Ellis Island. Hine did not recorded the identity of the subjects he photographed, although in some cases (as with children working in factories), he noted their height or other physical attributes.

The question of the identity of the portrait of the bearded man was raised again from a different source in late 2013. A family from New York City who had long believed that the Ellis Island enlargement was a relative (and even posed under it for snapshots), decided to come forward after seeing the image used in a review of the Eastman House exhibit on Lewis Hine at the International Center of Photography, published in the Wall Street Journal. The Goldzweig family contacted the newspaper and one of the staff writers, Angela Chen recognized a good story and took on the project.

Naomi and Yitzchak Goldzweig seated, with Ariella, far left, and Mazal Goldzweig, look at photos and information about their loved one Adrienne Grunwald for The Wall Street Journal.

Goldzweig family look at photos and information about their loved one. Photo credit: Adrienne Grunwald for The Wall Street Journal.

Cataloguing staff were naturally cautious. An identification made on a resemblance alone is often a subjective judgment and people often disagree, perhaps especially when the stakes are high (think… a portrait that “looks like” Abraham Lincoln). But in the end, all of the information provided by the family lined up nicely, and the “mug shot” (in this case) on a May 6, 1926 “Document of Identity to an Applicant who cannot obtain a National Passport” was compelling.

His passport picture. Photo credit: Adrienne Grunwald for The Wall Street Journal

His passport picture. Photo credit: Adrienne Grunwald for The Wall Street Journal

So, much was gained through this communication. The bearded man was Rabbi Shalom Haim Nadoff. He was the son of Rabbi Meir Elnadaf of Jerusalem and his wife Bedur who had immigrated to Palestine from Yemen around the time of his birth in 1901. His family had produced generations of Torah scholars, some of whom had worked to preserve Yemenite Torah and religious works and heritage during the early waves of immigration to Palestine.

He was trained in the customary Yemenite order of Torah study before pursuing advanced studies at Yeshivat Etz Chayim in Jerusalem, with its emphasis on the analytical methods of the Eastern European yeshivot. He was ordained there in 1922.

He was also a graduate of Bezalel Art Institute in Jerusalem where he trained as a silversmith. He was an accomplished designer and craftsman of jewelry and religious articles, who exhibited at the British Empire Exhibition in Wembly, England in 1925.

Hine had noticed and photographed an educated young married man, an ordained Rabbi and a graduate of a prestigious school for craftsman. One might add that Rabbi Nadoff exhibited his works in silver at the Sesqui-Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia in 1926. He became a naturalized United States citizen in 1933. He and his wife Mazal Sofer Nadoff and their five children initially resided in Brooklyn, New York before moving to Chicago, Illinois where in 1933, he displayed his work at the Century of Progress Exhibition. In Chicago, he established himself as the senior rabbi of the Sephardic Congregation of the Portuguese Israelite Fraternity, where he served for the next forty years. During this period, the congregation grew to include Sephardim of Middle Eastern and Northern African extraction, in addition to the original Spanish-Portuguese constituency. Although of Yemenite heritage, he was familiar with Sephardic and Ashkenazic culture and practice. He did not favor Yiddish and conversed only in Hebrew, English and Arabic. He was also able to use some Ladino (Judeo-Spanish) with his congregation.

He was a dedicated proponent of the establishment of a Jewish State and in 1974, he and his wife became residents of Bayit VeGan in Jerusalem, where they lived for the rest of their lives. He died there in 1986, four months after the death of his wife.

All of this information is now in the catalogue record of the Eastman House Data Management System.

However, as noted above, the title of the photograph is “A Yemenite Jew from Palestine” rather than the name of this man. The cataloguer’s reasoning was that this was also Lewis Hine’s photograph and the photographer was taking these images not as “mug shots” as stated above, not even as individual portraits (though he surely sought out an evocative face), but really to “ give a face” to the experience of an Immigrant to America in 1926.

The conflicting captions needed to be resolved, of course, as well as the misleading narrative used in the Ellis Island Caption. Both of the correspondents, the man with interest in Turkish history and the family of Rabbi Nadoff expressed satisfaction over these decisions. This information was shared with both the New York Public Library and the Ellis Island site. The Wall Street Journal published Angela Chen’s article, illustrated with photos of the Goldzweig family and using quotes from Eastman House on December 15, 2013 under the heading ”Rightly Identified – At Last.”

As a final note, the world was intrigued by the National Geographic documentary when photographer Steve McCurry returned to Afgahnistan after the removal of the Taliban government by American troops and local allies in 2001. He eventually located the subject of his compelling photograph, Sharbat Gula, then around the age of 30. Nevertheless, the photograph itself will probably never be known as “Sharbat Gula.” Like other iconic images, it stands for our collective, human identity, which in the best cases, transcends the identity of an individual.

Steve McCurry (American, b. 1950). Afghan Refugee Girl, ca. 1985, printed later. Chromogenic development print. George Eastman House. Courtesy Steve McCurry. © Steve McCurry

Steve McCurry (American, b. 1950). Afghan Refugee Girl, ca. 1985, printed later. Chromogenic development print. George Eastman House. Courtesy Steve McCurry. © Steve McCurry



 
The exhibition Lewis Hine is on view though September 7, 2014 George Eastman House. This major retrospective of the celebrated documentary photographer, reformer, and educator features more than 150 original prints dating from 1905 to 1937, including “A Yemenite Jew from Palestine.”

 

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Daguerre Introduced Photography 175 Years Ago

Posted by on Aug 19 2014 | Photography, Technology

It has been 175 since Louis Daguerre introduced photography to the world. The Giroux daguerreotype apparatus is photography’s first camera manufactured in quantity.

On June 22, 1839, L.-J.-M. Daguerre and Isidore Niépce (the son of Daguerre’s deceased partner, Joseph Nicéphore Niépce) signed a contract with Alphonse Giroux (a relative of Daguerre’s wife) granting him the rights to sell the materials and equipment required to produce daguerreotype images.

Scientist and politician François Arago publicly announced the new daguerreotype process in a speech to the French Academy of Art and Sciences on August 19, 1839, and the first advertisement promoting the process appeared in the August 21 issue of La Gazette de France.

Within three short weeks, Giroux met with popular success both in and outside of France; the first export of his company’s cameras arrived in Berlin, Germany, on September 6, 1839.

Giroux daguerreotype camera, 1839. Alphonse Giroux, Paris France. Gift of Eastman Kodak Company, ex-collection Gabriel Cromer.

Giroux daguerreotype camera, 1839. Alphonse Giroux, Paris, France. Gift of Eastman Kodak Company, ex-collection Gabriel Cromer.

Click here to learn more about Daguerre and the Daguerreotype photographic process.

For more about the history of photographic technology, check out the book Camera: A History of Photography from Daguerreotype to Digital.

 

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Another America: My Experience on an Amish Farm in Lancaster County

Posted by on Apr 28 2014 | Guest Blog, Other, Photography

Fifteen years ago, I was in my mid 30s and I didn’t know anything about farming. I bought a farm in Chenango County near Binghamton, N.Y. and bought two of everything—goats, sheep, cows, chickens, and pigs. People called me Noah.

Robert Weingarten (American, b. 1941). Amish 25, Lancaster County, PA, 2001. Inkjet print. Courtesy of the artist. © Robert Weingarten

Robert Weingarten (American, b. 1941). Amish 25, Lancaster County, PA, 2001. Inkjet print. Courtesy of the artist. © Robert Weingarten

I really liked the egg-laying hens. They’re really easy to work with. They make magic every day. They lay an egg every single day, nature’s perfect protein source.

I decided I wanted to learn how to raise organic eggs, so I called up Organic Valley and asked who’s raising eggs in the Northeast. They gave me the name of an Amish farmer in Lancaster County, who was at the time the largest producer of organic eggs for Organic Valley.

Robert Weingarten (American, b. 1941). Amish 52, Holmes County, OH, 2002. Inkjet print. Courtesy of the artist. © Robert Weingarten

Robert Weingarten (American, b. 1941). Amish 52, Holmes County, OH, 2002. Inkjet print. Courtesy of the artist. © Robert Weingarten

I just kind of broke that third wall, walked onto his farm, shook his hand, and said, “Hey, I want to raise organic eggs and I’ve heard you’re the best guy in the Northeast.” We immediately hit it off.

Jacob Glick lives in Bird In Hand, P.A. He and his family had five hen houses each with 10,000 chickens. All of the hens had access to the outdoors, and were let outside during the day to run around the pasture. It’s instinctual for them to come back into the barn at night and roost.

The most interesting and intriguing thing about the Amish lifestyle is how they’ve figured out ways to work around not having the modern conveniences we all think about, like electricity.

Chickens need a certain number of hours of light each day. So they had gas lanterns in the barn and used an old-fashioned windup alarm clock, with a string tied to the bells that when pulled would shut off the lights.

Robert Weingarten (American, b. 1941). Amish 10, Lancaster County, PA, 2001. Inkjet print. Courtesy of the artist. © Robert Weingarten

Robert Weingarten (American, b. 1941). Amish 10, Lancaster County, PA, 2001. Inkjet print. Courtesy of the artist. © Robert Weingarten

The Amish live a very simple life, very hard life. They’re not remotely afraid to put in a fifteen or sixteen hour hard day of physical labor, six days a week. Sunday is a day off, devoted to Church.

Robert Weingarten (American, b. 1941). Amish 35, Holmes County, OH, 2002. Inkjet print. Courtesy of the artist. © Robert Weingarten

Robert Weingarten (American, b. 1941). Amish 35, Holmes County, OH, 2002. Inkjet print. Courtesy of the artist. © Robert Weingarten

For a six-month period, I would go down and stay on Jacob’s farm for five or six days at a time. It was about 300 miles from my farm in Chenango County. He trusted me and I trusted him. Jacob was so giving and so helpful to me to really understand all the things I needed to do.

Some of my best memories are of the meals. Everything is made from scratch. That shoofly pie … wow! Lunch is the biggest meal of the day and also the only time the Amish do business.

The Amish are close to the vest when it comes to almost everything. For them to open up to me was very unusual.
The Amish are very helpful to each other. When someone gets married, they’ll buy a farm, and the whole community shows up to build a barn for them. It’s incredible how much gets done as a community. They’re a very, very tight knit community.

For a couple of years, Jacob hired a driver in a big truck (yes, there is an exception when hiring a driver) and he and his boys came up to my farm and stayed for well over a week and we went out hunting deer.

Robert Weingarten (American, b. 1941). Amish 72, Lancaster County, PA, 2003. Inkjet print. Courtesy of the artist. © Robert Weingarten

Robert Weingarten (American, b. 1941). Amish 72, Lancaster County, PA, 2003. Inkjet print. Courtesy of the artist. © Robert Weingarten

There’s an innocence about them that’s lost in our society now.

Related Exhibition and Program:

Another America: A Testimonial to the Amish by Robert Weingarten is on view through May 25, 2014 in Brackett Clark Gallery.

In Person: Photographer Robert Weingarten (Free to Members)
Thursday, May 1, 2014 at 6:00 p.m. in the Dryden Theatre.
Robert Weingarten will discuss his work on view in Another America.
 

 

 

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Making Fiber Based Photographic Paper Again in Rochester!

Posted by on Mar 07 2014 | Other, Photography

We’re getting ready for a fantastic Handmade Gelatin Photographic Paper workshop and it’s simply too fascinating to let slip by without mention.



In the early 1890s a new type of gelatin emulsion paper was introduced that was contact printed like the albumen print, but unlike albumen printing the image was made visible by a developer. The photographs were black and white, not shades of brown. This product was originally called “gaslight paper” because you could use your household gas light turned low as a darkroom safe light and use the same light turned up brighter to do the actual exposures with the paper in contact with a negative. One of the Kodak versions of this photographic paper was called “Azo” and it was manufactured until several years ago. In the past few years we have worked with Ron Mowrey, a retired Kodak emulsion engineer, to learn how to make and coat this type of emulsion. Not only is it one of the easiest emulsions we have made, but the results are extraordinary.

AZO_BLOG_CHEM

Working in the darkroom is often described as a magical experience. For almost every lover of analog photography the decisive moment of that magical experience can be pin pointed to that instant the latent image explodes to life from a seemingly blank piece of paper. Sadly for many people bitten by the photo bug in our digital world this is an experience might never have the pleasure of enjoying, however its never to late to start!

Coating_Blade_web

Actually making and using Azo emulsion to coat your own photographic papers and create stunning black and white contact prints is an experience that will take even the most seasoned photographer back to that first time they ever experienced the magic. If having that feeling again isn’t enough also take into account that you have created your prints entirely by hand. Taking raw materials and turning them into something beautiful is one of the more rewarding experiences one can have.

_MG_6162_web

_MG_6167_900

The workshop is from March 17-20 and we still have a few spots available for this great class. For more information and on-line registration please go to: http://bit.ly/GEHWorkshops

 

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What is a Digital Negative?

Posted by on Jan 30 2014 | Behind The Scenes, Other, Photography, Tutorials

We’re excited about a new workshop at George Eastman House in February: Digital Negative Making. For years we have taught a growing number of photographers how to make their own photographic negatives on glass using historic processes. Realizing that not everyone is interested in going that route, we decided to look into a new approach for the rest of the world: the “digital” negative.
 
But what is a digital negative? A digital negative is a negative image printed onto a transparency film using an inkjet printer. Once the original image is in your computer it can be edited “to taste” and prepared for lots of really interesting alternative photographic printing processes. The digital negative bridges the gap between 19th and 21st century photographic processes. You can use old glass plate or film negatives, that last bit of type 55 Polariod film you love so much, or even a digital capture from a smart phone.
 
Once you’ve decided on a printing process, like salted paper, platinum, or gum printing, a series of test prints are made to create a “printing curve.” This curve will be applied to the file before printing to help optimize the negative for the selected processes. The printing curve is a layer in Photoshop that has been adjusted for the specific paper printing process you’ve chosen. The curve allows the print to have smooth continuous mid tones while still keeping strong black tones and clean white tones. Once these tests are completed you never have to look back as the final steps are a check list of settings which once set, can be saved and applied the same way every time.
 
Here are some examples of Digital Negative Making in action:
 

Two hand made salted paper prints. The negative used to print these were created from Instagram files from a smart phone.

Two hand made salted paper prints. The negative used to print these were created from Instagram files from a smart phone.


 
A digital negative printing on ink press transparency film, the green cast is added to help give the negative spectral density.

A digital negative printing on ink press transparency film, the green cast is added to help give the negative spectral density.


 
An albumen print from a digital negative. The original 4x5 negative was created using a hand made gelatin dry plate.

An albumen print from a digital negative. The original 4×5 negative was created using a hand made gelatin dry plate.


 
 Two hand made salted paper prints and the original digital file on the phone that captured it.

Two hand made salted paper prints and the original digital file on the phone that captured it.

Digital Negative Making is a technique that photographers could have only dreamed of in the past. Now we can easily combine the precision editing and tonal control of digital with the beauty and magic of alternative photographic printing processes. All this and more will be covered in our very first digital negative making workshop at the George Eastman House Museum next month. Sign up today! Hope to see you there!
 

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