Archive for the 'Other' Category

1989 – Celebrating Joe Struble at Eastman House

Posted by on Mar 30 2015 | Behind The Scenes, Exploring the Archive, Other, Photography

After more than 25 years in the Photography Department, Collection Manager Joe R. Struble is retiring from Eastman House. On March 30, the staff had a party to celebrate Joe’s career at the museum and wish him well in the next chapter of his life. The following are Joe’s remarks to the staff:

1989

George Bush was president… Not “W” but George H.W. Bush… Bush ’41… he and Dan Quayle had just been inaugurated that January.

A hit movie of 1989… Honey I Shrunk the Kids.

The Simpsons debuted.

And so did I, at Eastman House!
(This photo could have been an audition photo for the Ned Flanders role in a live production of The Simpsons)

Photo by: Chris Holmquist

Photo by: Chris Holmquist

I was 41 years old — well into “responsible adulthood.”

I had trained as a Social Worker, received an MSW degree in 1977, but after struggling to find my place and my voice in that field I decided at age 30 to “see what else I might do with my life.”

That period of searching (and not always an active one) took 10 years, during which time I clerked and stocked shelves at CVS Pharmacy (#285 on East Main Street).

I had some career counseling at one point and the one “take-away” from that was that I scored high in liking “synthesis.” (huh?)

“Synthesis: the combining of often diverse conceptions into a coherent whole.”

I had always liked art and history, so I volunteered first at the Visual Studies Workshop and then at Eastman House, in the Library and Photo Collection, which in 1988 were in the same area, on top of the Dryden Theatre. The turmoil of the late 80’s had passed, the collections were supported and a building (which I still sometimes call the ”New Building” was nearly done.

David Wooters, the Archivist in the Photo Collection hired me when a position of Assistant Archivist was created and I came on board. Until he retired in 2009, he was my mentor.

I remember telling him back then “I know a lot about toothpaste and all varieties of baby diapers…I can point anybody to the Halls Cough Drops or to the shower caps, but I don’t know much about photographers or where to begin to look for something in the vault. He replied (presciently) “you will learn.”

Some years later, when I was getting up to speed someone helped me characterize this experience. She said “You learned as an apprentice… a very good, time-honored way to gain new knowledge and skills.”

I look over the door of the Library sometimes and read the words from the Eastman House Mission statement:
“We build Information Resources to provide the Means for both scholarly research and recreational inquiry.”

Here’s where that “synthesis part” comes in.

I came to know a collection of 400,000 photos, with the potential to illustrate the history of the practice of photography.

David taught us (and by us I include Janice Madhu, my colleague) that the holdings here were not just a “collection of nouns”… not just pictures of flowers, fire engines, seashells or the Flat Iron Building, but a collection that could show how photography shows a flower, fire engines, seashells or the Flat Iron Building, how photography showed life events, wars, how photography sold a products, and ideas, and ideologies. The collection could preserve evidence of how generation of families presented themselves to the camera and also how some families organized this evidence into albums.

I synthesized all my experiences from all the questions asked of the collection and you know what, I slowly climbed to the top of the hill and could see and interpret the collection broadly and in its particulars. It is broad and can answer almost any question presented to it with the evidence of images… some questions more fully than others, of course.

I have been told many times: What a great job you have… you get to look at pictures all day long. To which I respond: well, not really, I get to look for pictures most of the time.

But what an adventure, what a privilege, really, to have a job that has given me such proximity to this Collection.

And quite simple, it has given me a Life, something to learn about and to know, and always to share with others. It has given me a community of others of like interest — here in the US and around the World. And finally, it has given me a few lifelong friends, as well as many wonderful colleagues, and a day-to day routine and sense of purpose that I know I will miss very much.

Just this last week, I thought of a way to characterize retirement from Eastman House for myself. It’s been like a plane, descending, gradual, getting closer to landing. In the last month, the “fasten seat belt” sign has been on and by late Friday, I’ll be on the ground. Many people have asked me what I’ll do next, and I have the luxury of saying “I don’t know.” I have to land first.

 
Congratulations, Joe! We wish you all the best!

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The Dawn of Technicolor: The Filmography

Posted by on Mar 02 2015 | Motion Pictures, Other

The Dawn of Technicolor, 1915-1935, a new book by James Layton and David Pierce, is now available for purchase from George Eastman House and other online retailers. In addition to a historical account of Technicolor’s formative years, the publication features a comprehensive filmography of all two-color Technicolor films from 1917 to 1937. The filmography was compiled by myself and James Layton, with the help of a team of dedicated researchers including Daisuke Kawahara, Almudena Escobar Lopez, and Catherine A. Surowiec. I was constantly surprised by the collections we uncovered while researching this underdocumented subject. In this blog post I will share some of our findings, which are presented in the book as a resource for students, scholars, and anyone interested in early Technicolor films.

Just glancing  at the illustrations in the filmography will give you a sense of the subjects frequently photographed in the two-color palette. Frame enlargement from The Doll Shop (M-G-M, 1929). Image: George Eastman House.

Just glancing at the illustrations in the filmography will give you a sense of the subjects frequently photographed in the two-color palette. Frame enlargement from The Doll Shop (M-G-M, 1929). Image: George Eastman House.

What You’ll Find in the Filmography
The filmography is a detailed catalog of feature-length films, films with color sequences, advertisements, cartoons, travelogues, live-action shorts, tests, and abandoned productions shot in two-color Technicolor during the silent and sound eras. The films are listed in chronological order by premier date, but an index at the back allows you to search by title, personnel, color process, film studio, and production type (all-color features, all-color shorts, and feature inserts).

Sample entry from The Dawn of Technicolor filmography.

Sample entry from The Dawn of Technicolor filmography.

Each entry in the filmography includes a synopsis, cast and crew list, release dates, select bibliography, notes on the use of color, and archival holdings information for surviving Technicolor film elements. Inventories from the Technicolor Corporate Archive provided internal documentation on the lengths of color footage and number of prints ordered by producers. These resources gave us insight into Technicolor’s output, its clients, and the growing acceptance of color in the film industry.

Release shipments indicate that 1,029 feet of Technicolor was printed for Ben-Hur (M-G-M,1925). During the film’s extended release 1,531 prints were shipped to theatres nationally and abroad. In total, 1.5 million feet was printed in Technicolor. Document: Technicolor Corporate Archive at George Eastman House.

Release shipments indicate that 1,029 feet of Technicolor was printed for Ben-Hur (M-G-M,1925). During the film’s extended release 1,531 prints were shipped to theatres nationally and abroad. In total, 1.5 million feet was printed in Technicolor. Document: Technicolor Corporate Archive at George Eastman House.

New Discoveries
During our research we identified a significant number of films that were overlooked in other filmographies. Two years ago we started with a list of 141 two-color Technicolor films compiled from various published sources. In its complete form the filmography now accounts for the existence of 371 features and shorts, in addition to fourteen abandoned productions and tests for which color footage was shot but never shown to the public.

Supplementing our research from the Technicolor angle were archival collections at other institutions, which provided valuable context on the production and reception of the films. We looked at studio contracts and legal files to study Technicolor’s business and finances. We reviewed production reports and schedules to understand the demands of filming in color. Among the most revealing documents were personal interviews with Technicolor cameramen who described working on set with enormous lights and film equipment. These individuals were remarkable for constantly pushing the limits of two-color Technicolor artistically and technically.

Left: Paul Whiteman and his band pose for the “Rhapsody in Blue” sequence from King of Jazz (Universal, 1930). Right: Although the two-color Technicolor process could not reproduce blues or yellows, the resulting color scheme conveyed the essence of the musical number. Image: George Eastman House.

Left: Paul Whiteman and his band pose for the “Rhapsody in Blue” sequence from King of Jazz (Universal, 1930). Right: Although the two-color Technicolor process could not reproduce blues or yellows, the resulting color scheme conveyed the essence of the musical number. Image: George Eastman House.

Preserving Film Heritage
When possible, entries in the filmography are illustrated with frames scanned directly from nitrate and safety prints. For some films only fragments and clippings remain, whereas others survive in varying states of completeness due to physical deterioration and the dispersal of prints over time. We were fortunate to work with many colleagues in the field who opened up their collections and shared their knowledge with us. The illustrations are a fascinating window onto the world’s film archives and private collections.

Clara Bow made her first and only appearance in color in Red Hair (Paramount, 1928). Image: Library of Congress.

Clara Bow made her first and only appearance in color in Red Hair (Paramount, 1928). Image: Library of Congress.

The production of films in two-color Technicolor spanned a twenty-year period between the first film, The Gulf Between (1917), and the last, Kliou the Killer (1937). No color prints exist for either film—a few nitrate frame clippings remain of The Gulf Between and Kliou survives only as a black and white 16mm print. Fifty percent of the 371 titles documented in the filmography no longer survive in color in any form. It is our hope that the filmography will create a better understanding of what elements survive across the world’s film archives, and will better inform others and enable further preservation work.

Interesting Stories from the Filmography
We encountered so many surprising finds throughout the course of our research. Below is a sampling of some anecdotes included in the filmography:

On With the Show (1929). This film was the first all-Technicolor all-talking picture but unfortunately it only survives complete in black and white prints. Bit-by-bit, however, more and more color footage keeps turning up. Approximately fifteen to twenty minutes of the film now exists in color.

Sports of Many Lands (1929). The benefits of filming outdoors are evident in this travelogue shot in Argentina, England, Hawaii, and Martinique. This short was produced by Colorart Pictures, a company founded in 1926 to make films exclusively in Technicolor. Although its output was previously poorly documented, we discovered that Colorart made more than 50 films in Technicolor over four years.

White Pants Willie (1927). During this period, Technicolor had contracts with studios to produce color sequences in black and white films. Despite our best efforts, we couldn’t find any information about the color sequence in this Johnny Hines comedy.

Wanderer of the Wasteland (1924). This western was the first all-color feature produced by a Hollywood studio. According to reports, the director Irvin Willat used color very creatively. This film is lost except for a few nitrate frame clippings which are illustrated in the book. After Willat’s death, a print was found in his home, but it had already decomposed.

Explore Technicolor’s history at eastmanhouse.org/technicolor100!

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Nitrate Film: The Beginning

Posted by on Dec 28 2014 | Motion Pictures, Other

December 28 marks the anniversary of the first-ever public exhibition of motion picture film in 1895. The film, a continuing advancement of image capture, production, and technology, was made of nitrocellulose base, referred to colloquially as nitrate. Close in chemical composition to gunpowder, this film was known to be inflammable, but was not considered dangerous. Still, for portability and ease of use, open flames were the best way to project the flickering images, and on that first day the projector was set up in the middle of the room, in the midst of the audience, daring the patrons to decipher its magic. It wasn’t until the following year, and the first devastating fire, that nitrate began to garner its unique reputation.

It was a Saturday evening 119 years ago, in a basement room known as Salon Indien of the Grand Café, located at 14 Boulevard des Capuchins, Paris, that the first paying audience, of around 100, viewed projected moving images on a screen. The Lumière brothers, Auguste and Louis, exhibited ten short films, actualities and simple comedies, that each ran less than a minute. Versions of these films survive today, including, most famously, La Sortie de l’Usine Lumière a Lyon (Workers Leaving the Lumiere Factory) and l’Arroseur Arrosé (The Sprinkler Sprinkled).



 l’Arroseur Arrosé (The Sprinkler Sprinkled)

l’Arroseur Arrosé (The Sprinkler Sprinkled)

The Lumières used their own version of the Cinématographe, an ingenious device that was not only the projector, but also the camera and printer of the film. Specious rumors abound about that first show and the audience’s reaction to it, including stories that women screamed and fainted, but as every good reporter knows (or at least every reporter who has seen The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance), “when the legend becomes fact, print the legend.”
the Cinematographe

Like the film Thomas Edison was using for his peep show viewer the Kinetoscope, the Lumière film was 35mm in width and printed on a flexible nitrocellulose base. Unlike the Edison film, however, the Lumière film only had one set of circular perforations per frame. Edison’s film used four perforations on each side of the frame, the industry standard that exists to this day. The Lumière Cinématographe brought better clarity to the projected image by using an intermittent motion in the projector that had the film resting as much as it was motion, a feature that would be adopted by all future projectors and remains in use in the 21st century.

On May 4, 1897, a devastating fire broke out at the annual Charity Bazaar in Paris. The fire started in the section of the bazaar where film was being projected, and 180 people, mostly aristocrats, perished. Nitrate film got the reputation that it was a dangerous explosive, but the fire was actually the fault of the projectionist lighting a match while filling ether into the tank of illuminating fluid and not the fault of the nitrocellulose base film. From that day forward heavy restrictions were placed on how motion picture film could be handled, stored and transported, restrictions that are still in place to this day. The projector had to be placed within a fireproof booth, and since projected film was becoming a regular feature on Vaudeville programs, several theaters needed to be fitted with projection rooms.

For the next 55 years nitrate was the standard for producing commercial motion pictures. All silent titles universally recognized today, and the first 25 years of studio sound product, were created on nitrate film. Titles as enduring and varied as Cabiria, Greed, Sunrise, All Quiet on the Western Front, M, The Wizard of Oz, Gone With the Wind, The Rules of the Game, The Maltese Falcon, Citizen Kane, Tokyo Story, and All About Eve were recorded and exhibited on nitrate stock.

As a film archive and a film museum, the George Eastman House is committed to conserving and exhibiting films as close to their original disposition as possible. This is why we have built vaults to hold and keep nitrate film from deteriorating over the years. This is why we have collected nitrate film since the beginning of the museum. This is why we maintain the Dryden Theatre and its projectors to standards that will allow us to project nitrate film and maintain safety for the audience.

Projectionist Darryl G. Jones getting ready for a nitrate screening at the Dryden Theatre.

Projectionist Darryl G. Jones getting ready for our nitrate screening at the Dryden Theatre.

This is why we train staff, and instruct students of the L. Jeffrey Selznick School of Film Preservation, in the proper handling and projection of film objects. And this is the reason that we are embarking on The Nitrate Picture Show: A Festival of Film Conservation. We believe that film produced on nitrate should be seen on nitrate, and we are dedicating the weekend of May 1-3, 2015 to just this endeavor.

The legacy begun by two brothers in a basement in France 119 years ago this week continues at the George Eastman House in the present and in the future. If you would like to be a part, please visit eastmanhouse.org/nitratepictureshow.

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Kodak Camera at 125: Eastman’s First Film Patent

Posted by on Oct 14 2014 | Exhibitions, George Eastman, Other, Technology

On October 14, 1884, George Eastman received his first “film” patent (#306,594) for Negative Paper. While this was a paper film (not very related to the transparent product most people think of today) and not very successful, it eventually lead to improved versions incorporated into the first Kodak camera introduced in 1888 – a milestone in the history of photography.

US306594-0

Over the years, Eastman acquired many patents related to both film manufacturing and film and the apparatus to use them including #317,050 dated May 5, 1885 for the Eastman Walker roll holder and more importantly #388,850 patented Sept 5, 1888 for the Kodak.

1888-Kodak-camera-ad

Our current exhibition Kodak Camera at 125 showcases the new system of photography that Eastman introduced to the world with the Kodak camera in 1888 and the innovative parts used to build the device. We encourage you to visit to see objects from our collection that show the evolution of his cameras and the snapshots each has captured.

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Walking the Camino at the Dryden

Posted by on Sep 25 2014 | Motion Pictures, Other

“Around 1 p.m. we were overcome with the paranoid notion that we were waiting for a train that would never come. We threw on our packs and headed out into the wasteland of abandoned buildings to find answers.” [Train station El Burgo Ranero headed toward Leon, September 24, 2013]

This is a journal entry by Jeff Stanin, George Eastman House staff member. Exactly one year ago, Jeff was in the midst of a 500-mile pilgrimage across Spain known as the Camino de Santiago. This Saturday, September 27, at 8 p.m., the Dryden Theatre will be screening the Rochester Premiere of Walking the Camino: Six Ways to Santiago. The documentary follows six strangers from diverse walks of life walking this same journey, each with a unique story to tell.

Post-screening, Jeff will lead a discussion based on his unique journey across the Camino de Santiago. We hope you’ll join us!

For more information on the screening visit dryden.eastmanhouse.org

Jeff and wife Elizabeth at the Statue of the Wind-Battered Pilgrim

Jeff and wife Elizabeth at the Statue of the Wind-Battered Pilgrim

Sign marker of the Camino

Sign marker of the Camino

Church outside of Villalcazar de Sirga

Church outside of Villalcazar de Sirga

Setting out into the hot, dusty plains known as the Meseta

Setting out into the hot, dusty plains known as the Meseta

 

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